The integrity of a healthy skin barrier depends on lipids, sometimes referred to as "The Big Three". The lipids are ceramides (about 50%), sterols (about 25%), and free fatty acids (about 10-20%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors for these Big Three bioactive lipids.
Phytosphingosine is a naturally occurring long-chain fat found in the intercellular lipid bilayers of the epidermis, including the stratum corneum.
- Enhances epidermal barrier function
- Sooth inflammation
- Protect transepidermal water loss (TEWL)
Kim, Byung-Hak, et al. "Phytosphingosine Derivatives Ameliorate Skin Inflammation by Inhibiting NF-κB and JAK/STAT Signaling in Keratincoytes and Mice." Journal of Investigative Dermatology 134.4 (2014): 1023-1032.
Pavicic, T., et al. "Anti‐microbial and‐inflammatory activity and efficacy of phytosphingosine: an in vitro and in vivo study addressing acne vulgaris." International journal of cosmetic science 29.3 (2007): 181-190.
Rahman, Atta-ur, ed. Studies in natural products chemistry. Elsevier, 2020.